Franco: Soldier, Commander, Dictator (Military Profiles)
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Like many concepts in the book world, "series" is a somewhat fluid and contested notion. A good rule of thumb is that series have a conventional name and are intentional creations , on the part of the author or publisher. For now, avoid forcing the issue with mere "lists" of works possessing an arbitrary shared characteristic, such as relating to a particular place. Avoid series that cross authors, unless the authors were or became aware of the series identification eg.
Also avoid publisher series, unless the publisher has a true monopoly over the "works" in question. So, the Dummies guides are a series of works. But the Loeb Classical Library is a series of editions, not of works. Before becoming one of the longest-ruling dictators of the twentieth century, Francisco Franco commanded troops in the kinds of wars that have since become all too familiar.
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He not only waged vicious counterinsurgency campaigns against Muslim warlords and rebellious tribes in Morocco, but he also led a multinational force to victory in Europe's dress rehearsal for World War II - the Spanish Civil War. Born into a military family in , Francisco Franco first made a name for himself leading attacks against rebellious Moroccan warlords and tribesmen and by was promoted to brigadier general.
His role in the ruthless suppression of the revolution by coal miners in Asturias sealed his reputation for brutality, though Franco saw it as simply carrying out an order in the most efficient manner possible. As his final years progressed, tensions within the various factions of the Movimiento would consume Spanish political life, as varying groups jockeyed for position in an effort to win control of the country's future. The death of prime minister Luis Carrero Blanco in a 20 December bombing by ETA eventually gave an edge to the liberalizing faction.
Franco soon recovered and on 2 September he resumed his duties as Head of State. A year later he fell ill again, afflicted with further health issues, including a long battle with Parkinson's disease.
Profile of Spanish Dictator Francisco Franco
Franco's last public appearance was on 1 October when, despite his gaunt and frail appearance, he gave a speech to crowds from the balcony at the Royal Palace of El Pardo in Madrid. On 30 October he fell into a coma and was put on life support. Franco's family agreed to disconnect the life-support machines. Historian Ricardo de la Cierva claimed that he had been told around 6 pm on 19 November that Franco had already died. On 11 May , the Congress of Deputies approved, by with abstentions, a motion driven by the Socialist Workers' Party ordering the Government to exhume Franco's remains.
The government gave Franco's family a day deadline to decide Franco's final resting place, or else a "dignified place" will be chosen by the government. On 13 September , the Congress of Deputies voted —2, with abstentions, to approve the government's plan to remove Franco's body from the monument. Franco's family opposed the exhumation, and made appeals to the Ombudsman's Office to stop it. The family expressed their wish that Franco's remains be reinterred with full military honors at Almudena Cathedral in the centre of Madrid.
In Spain and abroad, the legacy of Franco remains controversial. The longevity of Franco's rule, his suppression of opposition, and the effective propaganda sustained through the years have made a detached evaluation difficult. For almost 40 years, Spaniards, and particularly children at school, were told that Divine Providence had sent Franco to save Spain from chaos, atheism, and poverty. A highly controversial figure within Spain, Franco is seen as a divisive leader. They emphasize his strong anti-communist and nationalist views, economic policies, and opposition to socialism as major factors in Spain's post-war economic success and later international integration.
Conversely, critics on the left have denounced him as a tyrant responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths in years-long political repression, and have called him complicit in atrocities committed by Axis forces during World War II due to his support of Axis governments. When he died in , the major parties of the left and the right agreed to follow the "Pact of Forgetting. The agreement effectively lapsed after , the year the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory was founded and the public debate started.
The Oxford Living Dictionary uses Franco's regime as an example of fascism. Augusto Pinochet is known to have admired Franco. Spaniards who suffered under Franco's rule have sought to remove memorials of his regime.
Most government buildings and streets that were named after Franco during his rule have been reverted to their original names. Owing to Franco's human-rights record, the Spanish government in banned all official public references to the Franco regime and began the removal of all statues, street names and memorials associated with the regime, with the last statue reportedly being removed in in the city of Santander. Attempts to give the national anthem new lyrics have failed due to lack of consensus. In March , the Permanent Commission of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe unanimously adopted a resolution "firmly" condemning the "multiple and serious violations" of human rights committed in Spain under the Francoist regime from to At the time of her death in , Carmen Polo was receiving as a pension more than From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Spanish general and dictator. This article uses Spanish naming customs : the first or paternal family name is Franco and the second or maternal family name is Bahamonde.
Core tenets. Definitions Economics Fascism and ideology Fascism worldwide Symbolism. Axis powers Montreux Fascist conference.
Franco: Soldier, Commander, Dictator - Geoffrey Jensen - Google книги
Fascists by country. Related topics. Main article: Spanish general election. National syndicalism Class collaboration Hispanidad. First organizations. List of Falangist movements. Main article: Francoist Spain. Further information: Spanish Empire. See also: Economic history of Spain: Economy under Franco. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Further information: Spanish transition to democracy. Under his breath, Cleese mutters: "You do have rats in Spain, or did Franco have 'em all shot? Bon Voyage, Your Excellency! Biography portal Fascism portal Spain portal Politics portal. Payne explains; "Persistent rumors about Franco's alleged Jewish ancestry have no clear foundation, and Harry S.
Reig Tapia points out that Franco signed more decrees of execution than any other previous head of State in Spain. Franco: A Personal and Political Biography. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Real Academia de la Historia. Retrieved 3 June The Spanish Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press. Morir, matar, sobrevivir: La violencia en la dictadura de Franco. Grupo Planeta GBS. Harper Perennial. Penguin Books.