Cygnus War: ITSG
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For every adaptive optics system telescope vibrations can strongly reduce the performance. This is true for the receiver part of the system i. Especially observations in deep fields observed with a laser guide star system without any tip-tilt star will be greatly spoiled by telescope vibrations. To remove the vibrations from the uplink path a vibration compensation system will be installed.
This system uses accelerometers to measure the vibrations and corrects their effect with a small fast tip-tilt mirror. The controller of the system is built based on the assumption that the vibrations take place at a few distinct frequencies. Here I present a lab set-up of this system and show first results of the performance.
Can we reconstruct mean and eddy fluxes from Argo floats? The capacity of deep velocity estimates provided by the Argo float array to reconstruct both mean and eddying quantities, such as the heat flux, is addressed using an idealized eddy resolving numerical model, designed to be representative of the Southern Ocean. The model is seeded with "virtual" Argo floats, which are then advected by the model fields for 10 years. The role of temporal sampling, array density and length of the float experiment are then systematically investigated by comparing the reconstructed velocity, eddy kinetic energy and heat-flux from the virtual Argo floats with the "true" values from the model output.
We find that although errors in all three quantities decrease with increasing temporal sampling rate, number of floats and experiment duration, the error approaches an asymptotic limit. Thus, as these parameters exceed this limit, only marginal reductions in the error are observed.
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The parameters of the real Argo array, when scaled to match those of the virtual Argo array, generally fall near to, or within, the asymptotic region. Using the numerical model, a method for the calculation of cross-stream heat-fluxes is demonstrated. The heat-flux is concentrated in regions downstream of large bathymetric features, consistent with the results of previous studies.
Finally, the implications of this work for monitoring the ocean climate are discussed. The international Argo data infrastructure; past, present, and future. Buck, J. The Argo array is composed of over 3, autonomous profiling floats that measure the temperature and salinity of the upper 2, m of the global deep ocean every ten days.
Argo is a key component of the global ocean observing system and the data addresses crucial questions such as quantifying the heat content of the upper ocean and steric sea level change. Further to this data are routinely assimilated into operational ocean forecast models.
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Argo is underpinned by an international data system that was founded in the year 2, at the first meeting of the Argo data management team. The Argo data system is built on principles of open data and supplying data to both operational ocean models and research communities within 24 hours of collection. A significant recent data system development is the assignment of a single dynamic DOI to GDAC holdings enabling time dependent unambiguous data citation at a monthly granularity.
The on-going evolution of Argo to address new global questions requires deeper data, shallower data, biogeochemical sampling and increased spatial coverage. These enhancements are increasing data complexity and volumes necessitating significant recent data format adaptation. The challenge and achievement was to preserve data formats and quality for existing established users while still allowing the integration of new data streams. The implementation of these adaptations is currently in progress within DACs.
Argo data have been traditionally delivered via FTP protocol with developments are on-going to facilitate new users and emerging expectations on data delivery mechanisms. These experimental. It will be a seeing reducer correcting the turbulence in the lower atmosphere over a field of 2' radius. In such way we expect to improve the spatial resolution over the seeing of about a factor of two and more and to increase the throughput for spectroscopy accordingly. The system consist of six Rayleigh lasers - three per eye of the LBT.
The lasers are launched from the back of the adaptive secondary mirror of the LBT. In and , we already mounted parts of the instrument at the telescope to provide an environment for the main sub-systems.
The commissioning of the instrument will start in in a staged approach. We will give an overview of ARGOS and its goals and report about the status and new challenges we encountered during the building phase. Finally we will give an outlook of the upcoming work, how we will operate it and further possibilities the system enables by design. The phytohormone ethylene regulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to environmental cues. The protein-protein interaction was also detected with the yeast split-ubiquitin two-hybrid system.
The conserved domain is necessary and sufficient to reduce ethylene sensitivity in Arabidopsis and maize. All Rights Reserved. The Euro- Argo education web site: using Argo data to teach data analysis and marine science. The Euro- Argo education website www. The site is centred on a selection of floats, which have been chosen because of the insight they provide into key oceanographic processes, the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of different ocean regions around the world, and the role of the ocean in the global climate system.
The float selection is a vehicle for teaching data analysis skills, linking these to current topics in the ocean and climate sciences. Each float in the selection has its own page, which provides access to the float data, data plots, background information on the ocean region in which the float can be found, and questions to guide data interpretation. Hidden 'model answers' allow users to check their understanding by comparing their own answers to those provided. The interactive component of the site also includes a series of quizzes, designed to teach data interpretation skills.
These start at a basic level and take the students step by step through the most common ways to plot oceanographic data in space and time. More general background information covers the main aspects of the Argo programme, its history and applications, and basic technical information about the floats and sensors.
The site is primarily aimed at young people between 11 and 18 years of age. However experience from using selected material from the site during science open days shows that children as young as and adults of all ages also enjoy the challenge of using and interpreting the Argo data in different contexts. A number of important problems in galactic cosmic ray physics has been faced through different analyses. In this contribution we summarize the latest results in gamma-ray astronomy and in cosmic ray physics.
The observed TeV emission was highly variable, showing large enhancements of the flux during active periods. The study of the spectral behaviour during flares revealed a positive correlation of the hardness with the flux, as already reported in the past by the Whipple telescope, suggesting that this is a long term property of the source. Hart, M. By correcting atmospheric turbulence close to the telescope, the system is designed to deliver high resolution near infrared images over a field of 4 arc minute diameter. ARGOS is motivated by a successful prototype multi-laser guide star system on the 6.
At the LBT, each side of the twin 8. The returning light is to be detected by wavefront sensors that are range gated within the seeinglimited depth of focus of the telescope. Measured atmospheric turbulence profiles from the site lead us to expect that by compensating the ground-layer turbulence, ARGOS will deliver median image quality of about 0.
Horizontal mixing in the Southern Ocean from Argo float trajectories. We provide the first observational estimate of the circumpolar distribution of cross-stream eddy diffusivity at m in the Southern Ocean using Argo float trajectories. We show that Argo float trajectories, from the float surfacing positions, can be used to estimate lateral eddy diffusivities in the ocean and that these estimates are comparable to those obtained from RAFOS floats, where they overlap.
Using the Southern Ocean State Estimate SOSE velocity fields to advect synthetic particles with imposed behavior that is " Argo -like" and "RAFOS-like" diffusivity estimates from both sets of synthetic particles agreed closely at the three dynamically very different test sites, the Kerguelen Island region, the Southeast Pacific Ocean, and the Scotia Sea, and support our approach.
Observed cross-stream diffusivities at m, calculated from Argo float trajectories, ranged between and m2 s-1, with peaks corresponding to topographic features associated with the Scotia Sea, the Kerguelen Plateau, the Campbell Plateau, and the Southeast Pacific Ridge. These observational estimates agree with previous regional estimates from the Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean DIMES near the Drake Passage, and other estimates from natural tracers helium , inverse modeling studies, and current meter measurements.
These estimates are also compared to the suppressed eddy diffusivity in the presence of mean flows. The comparison suggests that away from regions of strong topographic steering suppression explains both the structure and magnitude of eddy diffusivity but that eddy diffusivities in the regions of topographic steering are greater than what would be theoretically expected and the ACC experiences localized enhanced cross-stream mixing in these regions. Present and future adaptive optics systems aim for the correction of the atmospheric turbulence over a large field of view combined with large sky coverage.
To achieve this goal the telescope is equipped with multiple laser beacons. Still, to measure tip-tilt aberrations a natural guide star is used.
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For some fields such a tilt-star is not available and a correction on the laser beacons alone is applied. For this method to work well the laser beacons must not be affected by telescope vibrations on their up-link path. To achieve this goal a vibration compensation system is necessary to mitigate the mechanical disturbances. The accelerometer measurements are fed into a real time controller.
To achieve high performance the controller of the system is model based. The output is applied to a fast steering mirror.
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This paper presents the concept of the ARGOS vibration compensation, the hardware, and laboratory results. We tested 30 prototype global positioning system GPS radiocollars on brown bears Ursus arctos over a 3-year period on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. All units also contained a conventional VHF very high frequency transmitter and weighed 1. An observing system simulation experiment OSSE using an ensemble coupled data assimilation system was designed to investigate the impact of deep ocean Argo profile assimilation in a biased numerical climate system.
Based on the modern Argo observational array and an artificial extension to full depth, "observations" drawn from one coupled general circulation model CM2. Our results showed that coupled data assimilation with simultaneous atmospheric and oceanic constraints plays a significant role in preventing deep ocean drift. However, the extension of the Argo array to full depth did not significantly improve the quality of the oceanic climate estimation within the bias magnitude in the twin experiment. Even in the "identical" twin experiment for the deep Argo array from the same model CM2. The small ensemble spread and corresponding weak constraints by the deep Argo profiles with medium spatial and temporal resolution may explain why the deep Argo profiles did not improve the deep ocean features in the assimilation system.
Additional studies using different assimilation methods with improved spatial and temporal resolution of the deep Argo array are necessary in order to more thoroughly understand the impact of the deep Argo array on the assimilation system. Orban de Xivry, G.
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In this paper, we report on the first on-sky results and analyze the performances based on the data collected so far. We also discuss adaptive optics procedures and the joint operations with Luci for science observations. Effective calibration procedures play an important role for the efficiency and performance of astronomical instrumentation.
An artificial light source is used to feign the real laser beacons and perform extensive testing of the system, independent of the time of day and weather conditions, thereby greatly enhancing the time available for engineering.
Fibre optics and computer generated holograms CGHs are used to generate the necessary wavefront. We present the optomechanical design, and discuss the expected accuracy, as well as tolerances in assembly and alignment. Here we present the first significant results obtained in gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic-ray physics.